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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

HIGH-CARBON STEEL.                                           97
SEC. Vd.—Manufacture of high steel in an open-hearth furnace.—It is possible to make open-hearth steel of any carbon from .05 to 1.50 per cent., with phosphorus below .04 per cent., manganese below .50 per cent,, and sulphur below .04 per cent. During the last few years this steel has come into general use and all car springs and similar articles are of open-hearth steel. It is used extensively under the name "cast steel," a term which is both a truth and a lie: the truth because the steel is cast; a lie because "cast steel" is a trade name dating back a century, and meaning the product of the crucible.
There are one or two points about this material which should be recognized by maker and user. First, there is less opportunity to get a "dead melt" in the furnace, and hence there is more liability of blowholes in the ingots and seams in the bar. For making
TABLE Y-B.
Clippings from the Top* and Bottom of Each Ingot of a High-
Caxbon Heat.
Number of Ingot.	Part of Ingot.	Composition; per cent.					
		Carbon by Combustion.	P	Mn	B	Si	Cu
1	Top  .........	1.009 1.080	.030 .081	.80 .29	.027 .026	.14 .18	.10 .10
	Bottom. .......						
							
2	Top        ......	1.046 1.000	.029 .020	.29 .29	.027 .027	.15 .18	.10 .10
	Bottom. .......						
							
8	Top  .........	1.042 0.088	.081 .030	.29 .80	.028 .029	.11 .14	.10 .10
	Bottom .......						
							
4	Top .........	1.090 1.027	.082 .084	.28 .29	.028 .025	.09 .12	.10 .10
	Bottom. .......						
							
5	Top  .........	0.948 1.089	.085 .036	.82 .29	.026 .027	.17 .10	.10 .10
	Bottom .......						
6	Top .........	1.005 1.086 •	.030 .088	.28 .29	.026 .026	.11 .11	.10 .10
	Bottom .......						
							
7	Top        .......	1.078 1.048	.030 .028	.29 .80	.025 .028	.11 .15	.09 .10
	Bottom. , ......						
							
a	Top .........	0.982 0.968	.029 .082	.80 .29	.025 .026	.12 .13	.10 .08
	Bottom .......						
0	Top .........	1.044 0.915	.081 .082	.   .29 .28	.026 .027	.11 .13	.09 .10
	Bottom .......						
Test.		1.078	.030	.28	.088	.12	.or
* The piece from the upper bloom was from a point one-quarter way from the top of the ingot, and near the point of maximum segregation. The sample was the clipping produced in cutting a billet under the hammer.